Whichever side of the debate you're on, whether you consider Gravity to be science fiction or not, there is a distinct subgenre of sorts that the new movie falls into: the astronaut movie. What normally separates these from the wider scope of space movies is their contemporary or historical nature, or their realistic plausibility. Usually a defining characteristic is the spacesuits worn by the people (or in the case of some examples, puppies or chimpanzees) on-screen. This excludes stuff like Star Wars, which appears to be set in an oxygen-aplenty galaxy. Typically, astronaut movies are those about a mission of any kind originating from Earth, even one set in the distant future.
The movies we might most associate with astronauts are those based on true stories. The Right Stuff and Apollo 13 and documentaries like the Oscar-nominated For All Mankind, for instance. Then there are those at least based around the reality of astronauts as we know them. Capricorn One never winds up in space -- that's part of the point of its Moon Landing hoax premise -- while Space Cowboys is fictional but not fantastical. There's also very unrealistic movies set "now" like Armageddon and The Astronaut's Wife as well as slapstick comedies like The Reluctant Astronaut and RocketMan and other kiddie fare such as Space Chimps and Space Buddies.
The popular answer to this survey is, of course, Kubrick's 2001: A Space Odyssey. Some other possible choices, though, include SpaceCamp, Planet of the Apes, Moon, Gattaca, Sunshine, Fly Me to the Moon, Journey to the Far Side of the Sun, Another Earth, Mission to Mars, Red Planet and this year's other excellent astronaut movie, Europa Report. Which one is your favorite?